(1) It is recorded in the History of Fuliang County that “Xinping began to fire pottery in the Han dynasty” and from Notes on South Kilns in the Qing dynasty that “Jingdezhen Town in Xinping is located to the south of the Chang River and pottery wares were made there from the Han times.” See Liu Xinxin, The Prosperity and Characteristics of Qingbai Porcelain in the Song Dynasty, in Chai Kiln & Hutian Kiln, 2004, p. 45. (Publisher etc. in Chinese only. ISBN 7-80674-591-2.)
(2) Liu Xinxin, ibid., p. 45.
(3) Liu Xinxin, ibid., p. 21.
(4) Liu Xinxin, ibid., p. 21.
(5) Liu Xinxin, ibid., p. 45.
(6) A.C. Moule and Paul Pelliot, Marco Polo: The Description of the World. London,1938, p. 352.
(7) Liu Xinxin, op. cit., p. 45. Also see S. T. Yeo and Jean Martin, Chinese Blue and White Ceramics –a brief Introduction. Singapore. Art Orientalis, 1978. p. 16.
(8) Nigel Wood, Chinese Glazes. London: A&C Black Limited, 1999, p. 97.
(9) Professor Liu Xinyuan, personal discussions, August 2005.
(10) Liu Xinyuan, Imperial Export Porcelain from late Yuan to Early Ming, Oriental Art Magazine, Volume XLV/I (1999) pp. 98-100. Personal discussions, August 2005.
(11) S. T. Yeo and Jean Martin, op. cit., p. 20.
(12) See Roxanna M. Brown, The Ming Gap and Shipwreck Ceramics in Southeast Asia, PhD dissertation, University of California at Los Angeles, 2004.
(13) Wu Zhenglian, The Verification of Merchant Ships types in the Sino-Japanese Trade from the end of the Ming Dynasty to the Beginning of the Qing dynasty, Proceedings of the International Sailing Ships History Conference. Shanghai, 1991, p.143.
(14) Kee Ming-Yuet. Straits Chinese Porcelain. Kuala Lumpur: Kee Ming-Yuet Sdn. Bhd. and Cross Time Matrix Sdn Bhd, 2004, p.189.
(15) Colin Sheaf and Richard Kilburn, The Hatcher Porcelain Cargoes, The Complete record. Oxford: Phaidon Christie’s Limited, 1988, p. 21.
(16) Sheaf and Kilburn, ibid., p. 22.
(17) It is interesting to see how Pere’ d’ Entrecolles in his letters of 1712, rate these decorators: “ In Europe they would only pass for apprentices of a few month’s standing….They know nothing of the beautiful
rules of this art; though it must be acknowledged that they paint flowers, animals, and landscapes which are much admired, on porcelain as well as on fans and lanterns of the finest gauze” See; William Burton, Porcelain, It’s Art and Manufacture, B.T. Batsford, London, 1906.
(18) B.T. Batsford, ibid., p.43.
(19) Tang Yings alias Jun Gong, a native from Han Jun Qi was serving as Deputy Officer of the Internal Affairs Office in the Hall of mental Cultivation of the Royal Palace. In the 6th year of Yongzhen reign (1729) he was decreed to supervise the Imperial porcelain production at Jingdezhen. In 1743, he submitted his famous: Twenty Illustrations of Porcelain Manufacturing to the emperor together with detailed description of porcelain production. Although the report is widely reprinted, the most authentic version can be found in the official annals of the province of Jiangxi; Book XCIII, Folio 19-23. Private translation is made by Dr. Tan Pek Hong. Kuala Lumpur, 2006.
(20) Maria Antonia Pinto de Matos, The Portuguese Trade, Oriental Art Magazine, XLV/1 (1999) p. 22.
(21) Maria Antonia Pinto de Matos, ibid., p. 22.
(23) Peter Borschberg, The seizure of the Sta. Catarina revisited: The Portuguese Empire in Asia, VOC politics and the origins of the Dutch-Johor alliance (1602-c.1616). Journal of Southeast Asian Studies; 2/1/2002. p. 5.
(24) T. Volker, Porcelain and the Dutch East India Company. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1954.
(25) Sheaf and Kilburn, op. cit., p. 21.
(26) T. Volker, op. cit., p. 42
(27) T. Volker, op. cit., p. 69.
(28) T. Volker, op. cit., p. 67.
(29) Professor Liu Xinyuan, personal discussions, August 2005.
(30) C. Vialle’, The records of the VOC concerning the trade in Chinese and Japanese porcelain between 1634 and 1661, Aziatische Kunst, XXXll/3, Amsterdam (1992) pp.7-34.
(31) Cao Jianwen, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, The Relation between Ceramics Production in Jingdezhen during Late Ming Dynasty Ceramics found on ‘Wanli Shipwreck’ in Nanhai. A report on The Wanli Shipwreck at the ‘Treasures of the Nanhai” Exhibition. Kuala Lumpur Sept. 2005.
(32) Geoff Wade, translator, Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an open access resource, Singapore: Asia Research Institute and the Singapore E-Press, National University of Singapore, http://epress.nus.edu.sg/msl/entry/586, accessed October 14, 2005.Geoff Wade, translator, Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an open access resource, Singapore: Asia Research Institute and the Singapore E-Press, National University of Singapore, http://epress.nus.edu.sg/msl/entry/586, accessed October 14, 2005.
(33) Based on studies of the Dutch Daghregister, Bennet Bronson ascertains that seaports in Fujian exported more ceramics than Guangdong in the years between 1673 and 1683. See Bennet Bronson, Export Porcelain in Economic Perspective: The Asian Ceramic Trade in the 17th century, in Chuimei Ho, editor, Ancient Ceramic Kiln Technology in Asia. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong Centre of Asian Studies (1990) pp. 126-151. In his paper Quantifying the Role of Fujian Ceramics in China’s Southeast Asian Trade (1998) p. 3. Bronson adds that more ships departed from Macao and Guangdong but the size of the ships from Fujian ports was larger.
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